Business Layer: Behavioral Concepts

  • Business Process

  • Business Function

  • Business Interaction

  • Business Event

  • Business Service

Business Process

Business Process groups behavior based on an ordering of activities. It is intended to produce a defined set of Products or Business Services. The key point about a Business Process is that it represents the “internal” aspects of activities. A sales person may [externally] collaborate with a customer to sell something, but eventually sales “Process” may ensue who actually performs a load of internal things, such as preparing sales documents, calculating delivery and so on. A key point – processes and function apply to a single role. Its name should be a verb.

Example

  • Business Process triggered by or triggers any other business behavior element

  • Business Process accesses Business Objects

  • Business Process realizes one or more Business Services

  • Business Process may use (internal) Business Services or Application Services

  • Business Role or Application Component assigned to Business Process

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Business Function

Business Function groups behavior based on a chosen set of criteria (typically business resources and / or competencies). In effect it is internal behavior performed by a Business Role. A key point – processes and function apply to a single role. Should be named as a verb ending in “-ing” (the gerund).

Example

  • Business Function triggered by or triggers any other business behavior element

  • Business Function accesses Business Objects

  • Business Function realizes one or more Business Services

  • Business Function may use (internal) Business Services or Application Services

  • Business Role or Application Component assigned to Business Function

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Business Interaction describes the behavior of business collaboration. Business Interaction is the actual behaviour that takes place between business roles. For instance, if a Point of Sale system needs to collaborate with a Credit Card Payment system, the detail of their interaction must be known. Should be named as a verb in the present tense.

Example

In the model below, a business interaction is triggered by a request. The business interaction Take out combined insurance is performed as collaboration between the travel and luggage insurance seller. The business interaction needs the Policy info business object, and realizes the (external) business service Combined insurance selling. As part of the business interaction, the Prepare travel policy and Prepare luggage policy are triggered. The Travel insurance seller and Luggage insurance seller perform these processes separately.

  • Business or Application Collaboration assigned to Business Interaction

  • Business Interaction triggered by or triggers any other business behavioural element

  • Business Interactions access Business Objects

  • Business Interaction realizes one or more Business Services or Application Services

ArchiMate - Business Interaction

Business Event

Business Event is something that happens (internally or externally) and influences behavior. It is a trigger or stimulus for behaviour. It could be triggered by actors, functions and other interactions. It could be internal or external in origin. Also it is “instantaneous” in nature. The name should be a verb used in the perfect tense, i.e. “claim received”.

Example

In the model below, the Request insurance event triggers the Take out insurance process. A business object containing the Customer info accompanies the request. In order to persuade the customer to purchase more insurance products, a triggering event is raised in the Receive request process. This triggers the Send product portfolio to customer process.

  • Business Event may trigger or be triggered by a Business Process, Function or Interaction

  • Business Event may access a Business Object

  • Business Event may be composed of other Business Events

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Business Service

Business Service is a service that fulfils a business need for a customer (internal or external to the organisation).

Example

A Business Service exposes functionality of [is performed by] business roles or collaborations to the environment; must be realised by a process or function. Can be associated with a value. Name using a verb with “-ing” at the end (a present participle).

  • Business Service associated with a value.

  • Business Process, Function or Interaction may realize a Business Service

  • Business or Application Interface assigned to a Business Service

ArchiMate - Business Process 2